Lessere e il divenire (Gli emersi poesia) (Italian Edition)
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Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties of spelling. Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but based on an older form of the infinitive see 2. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with -g- and some without see Appendix II for a complete list. Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write.
This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona.
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Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing. Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at ten to eight. Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals.
There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Chapter Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming. Next year we'll buy a ne w car. Rome became the capital of Italy in At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative. A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei.
However Italians use this tense of verbs only very sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see Chapter Saranno le tre meno dieci.
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What time is it? It must be about ten to three.
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Suona il telefono. The phone is ringing. Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide. The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2. I don't know whether I will have finished the job by the time the customer comes. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. When we've received the invoice, we'll send you the money.
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More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in The imperfect indicative is formed by adding the endings -avo, -evo, -ivo for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively to the stem of the verb. It is the most regular of all the tenses of Italian verbs. The imperfect of the 2nd conjugation verbs with a contracted infinitive in urre is regular, but follows the pattern of the stem in duc-, giving produrre: produc-evo, produc-evi…, tradurre: traduc-evo, traduc-evi…, etc.
Similarly the verbs with a contracted infinitive in -orre have a regular imperfect based on the stem in pon-; disporre, dispon-evo; imporre, imponevo… The contracted infinitive bere has a regular imperfect bev-evo. The only true irregular imperfect is that of essere: ero, eri… see verb tables.
Uses of the imperfect The imperfect indicative is mainly used to refer to the past as will be shown in Chapter The use of this tense should always be considered in the context of aspect The choice of aspect imperfect or perfect is very important when referring to the past in Italian, particularly in situations where the two forms are used in the same sentence.
I was watching TV when the earthquake struck. It was midnight, it was raining and the car ran silently. We used to have a coffee at 11 o'cloc k. It was already 5 o'cloc k when you phoned. Last week I was told that you'd come yesterday. I'd like some roses. Buongiorno, cercavo un libro di Umberto Eco. Good morning, I'm looking for a book by Umbert o Eco.
Mi scusi, non volevo disturbare. Excuse me, I don't want t o disturb you. This is more common in spoken than in written Italian. If you had gone more slowly, you wouldn't have had the accident. The uses of the compound perfect and other past tenses are illustrated in Part B. I've just had a coffee. Avete capito quello che ho detto? Did you understand what I said? We came to England 20 years ago and we are still here. La Basilica di S. St Peter's Basilica was built in the 16th century and you can still see it now. Because of these characteristics the compound perfect is very frequently used in conversational Italian, allowing the speaker to relate the facts of the past to the present.
The most common irregularity is the short si ending alternating with the longer form based on the stem of the infinitive, e. That's why I came back t o Naples and I am still here. Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago. Although it tends to be used very seldom in conversational Italian, except perhaps in parts of the south, the simple perfect is very common in written language, especially narrative and historical language, because of the precise way in which it defines the past.
Pinocchio, by Collodi, I Libri di Gulliver, 2. It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere. The forms of the pluperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. It is used to refer to an event previous to an event placed in the past see Chapters 13, 30 and Ricordo che tu eri arrivato da poco quando Maria ha telefonato. I remember that you had just arrived when Maria called. I think Franco had already closed the shop at 7 o'c lock. The forms of the trapassato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables.
The trapassato remoto is the form of pluperfect used when the main event or action is expressed by a verb in the simple perfect. After he had said goodbye, he went out in a hurry. Appena fu uscita, tutti si misero a ridere. As soon as she had gone out, everybody started laughing.
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There are two tenses of the conditional mood: the present and the past 2. The verbs with an irregular present conditional show the same pattern already seen for the future indicative see 2. In Italian this is called periodo ipotetico. This type of sentence is made up of two parts: the condition and the consequence. Se fossi ricco, non lavorerei. If I were rich, I wouldn't work. If you really valued me, you would give me more responsibility.
You will find more details on the periodo ipotetico in Chapter I would like a coffee.